The efficiency of a gas turbine cycle rises as the turbine entry temperature is increased. Because of this, the hotter the combustion gases that go in to the first turbine stage, the more particular power the jet engine can create. In a modern engine, about twenty percent of compressed air bleeds off for cooling and sealing purposes. This is mostly for guide vanes and turbine blades. The stators and the outer wall of a turbine’s flow passage utilize cooling air moving from the compressor between the combustor and casing of the outer engine.
The turbine rotor blades, disks, and inner walls of a turbine flow passage uses the air that bleeds from the compressor though inner passageways. Because the stators materialize before the first row of rotating blades, it is expected that the first stage of stators are uncovered to very high temperatures. This includes local hot-spots from the combustor close by. The temperature at this first stage is slightly lowered by dilution of the gases with cooling air, along with the relative velocity effecting and powering extraction from the turbine.
The laws of thermodynamics demand that because of combustion inefficiencies, there be a pressure loss inside the combustor. This means that the mainstream pressure at the first row of stators in the turbine located after the combustor is lower than on the way out of the last stage of the compressor. This difference in pressure is used to guide the cooling air through the internal passageways and into the stators and blades.
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