An integrated circuit (IC) refers to an assembly of electronic circuits that are placed onto a single flat piece of semiconductor material. Commonly comprising a vast number of MOSFETs that are placed on a small chip, integrated circuits allow for more compact and less expensive electronics that operate with higher speeds as compared to similar devices that rely on discrete components. Coupled with reliable mass production capabilities for such devices, integrated circuits serve as a common building block for countless electronic equipment types, revolutionizing the world of electronics.
Electronic devices have consistently advanced over the years with new capabilities and increased efficiency, all made possible through the various electrical components that make them up. There are numerous electrical components that serve as basic building blocks for circuits, and each has different functionalities that come together to make the device’s operations possible. Whether the electronic is a simple calculator or an advanced personal computer system, many devices will share much of the same components for their electrical circuits. In this blog, we will provide a brief overview of the most common electrical components that are found in various electronics and projects.
An opto-isolator is an electrical component that may also be referred to as an otpo-coupler or photocoupler. Regardless of name, such components are used to transfer electrical signals between two isolated circuits with light as the medium. As semiconductor devices, the transfer of signals is achieved through the use of a short optical path or link that is electrically isolated. Photocouplers or opto-couplers regularly come in the form of a single package, and they are no larger than a standard integrated circuit. As a common component for numerous circuits that may assist solid state relays, optical encoders, and other electronic components, understanding the functionality and use of opto-isolators, opto-couplers, and photocouplers can be beneficial.
From the LED lights that provide visibility to those that are used for television screens and signs, such electronic parts can cater to many applications that we regularly use or rely on in daily life. While small in size, a single LED can produce a large amount of light with great efficiency. As LEDs can come in a variety of forms to accommodate different requirements and applications, understanding the differences between certain LED light types can be useful when searching for lighting solutions.
RF Connectors (Radio Frequency), also known as coax connectors, are used to transmit radio frequency signals by connecting transmission lines to various applications. RF connectors are primarily used with coaxial cables in devices such as television receivers, two-way radios, antenna WiFi devices, and various industrial & scientific measuring devices. In this blog, we will take a look at the most common types of RF connectors: BNC, SMA, SMB, N-type, and TNC.
For electronics to carry out the various procedures that they are intended to be capable of, they often rely on a number of electromechanical components to govern voltages and resistance. With components known as resistors, a circuit may have its current flow reduced, signal levels adjusted, voltages divided, transmission lines terminated, and more. When there is a need for varying voltage values and resistances, components known as variable resistors and potentiometers are used.
A thermistor, whose name comes from ‘thermal’ and ‘resistor,’ is a type of resistor whose resistance depends on temperature. For all intents and purposes, a thermistor is a resistance thermometer. They are made from metallic oxide formed into a bead, disk, or cylindrical shape enclosed in epoxy or glass. While they do not work well at extreme temperatures, thermistors are ideal for measuring temperatures at a certain point and are most precise when used within a limited range. The range in which a thermistor will work is dependent on the base resistance.
A potentiometer, sometimes called a pot or potmeter, is a three-terminal variable resistor wherein the resistance is manually varied to control the flow of electrical current. In essence, a potentiometer acts as an adjustable voltage divider. They are considered a passive electronic component and operate by altering the position of a sliding contact across a uniform resistance. In a potentiometer, the entire input voltage is applied across the entire length of the resistor, and the output voltage is determined by voltage drop between the fixed and sliding contacts.
From simple calculators to complex computer systems, we often rely on a great number of electronic systems to carry out our daily activities. Despite this, many may not realize the large number of parts and components that come together to make up the devices that we use. As one of the building blocks of electronics, integrated circuits are a component that may be found in almost every single piece of electronic equipment, vastly changing our capabilities of manufacturing such devices. In this blog, we will discuss in detail what integrated circuits are, how they function, and the various types that are used within electronics.
A relay is a type of switch controlled by a circuit. Essentially, relays send messages telling a machine to start. For example, when a car is started, the ignition only indirectly interacts with the car battery, because a relay is sending the signal that tells the car to start. Relays are necessary parts for many electrical devices because they require less power to be used than many of the devices they are connected to. Using a car battery as an example again, if the battery were connected directly to the car’s ignition, it would require a great deal of power and wiring to start the car. With a relay, a far smaller amount is needed, because it is only a mediator. In addition to saving energy, this is a much safer way of starting the car than having a great deal of wiring and electrical power.
Optoelectronics is a field that concerns itself with the study and use of electronic systems and devices that are capable of producing, governing, and detecting light. As a sub-field of photonics, optoelectronics encompasses light such as visible light, X-rays, ultraviolet, infrared, gamma rays, and more. As a technology, optoelectronic devices serve a wide variety of applications and are constantly expanding as a field of study in the modern era. In this blog, we will provide an overview of the various types of optoelectronics, as well as some various examples of devices belonging to them.
Power Entry Modules (PEM) are electromechanical components that are implemented within appliances and systems in order to integrate the appliance inlet with other components. In general, these components include switches, circuit breakers, fuse holders, voltage selectors, appliance outlets, and more. Power entry modules may be used to simplify the assembly process, or they may be used to benefit the product design.
Electromechanical systems that are systems and apparatuses that are used to transform electrical energy into mechanical movement, as well as the other way around. Typical examples of electromechanical systems are solenoids and electric motors, and they may be found in a variety of industries and applications to provide actuation or movement. Such systems may cater to a number of applications, providing for devices such as electromechanical panel controls or electromechanical switches. In general, there are four major types of electromechanical systems, and these include motors and gearboxes, DC generators, shape memory alloy actuators, and linear actuators.
Turbine engines are favored for the many advantages that they have over reciprocating engines, such as an increased aviation performance, less vibration, and better reliability. There are many different types of turbine engines in the aviation market. They are classified based on their compressor and on whether or not they have axial flow, centrifugal flow or a combination of both. They can also be classified based on the flow that the air takes through the engine and how that power is produced. There are only four ways in which this flow can happen and you can find out more about that by learning about the four different types of turbine engines, which are the turbojet, turboprop, turbofan and turboshaft.
The function of an analog input, also known as an AI or AIN, is to convert voltage levels of an item into a digital value that can be processed and stored inside of a computer. An AO or analog output, on the other hand, does the opposite in that it converts the digital value from a computer into a voltage level that is presented on an output terminal so as to provide an adjustable output.
A board stacking connector, sometimes known as a board to board connector or simply PCB connector, is an item that provides a foundation, housing, and terminals for printed circuit boards. Manufacturers in the industry will use board stacking connectors because it enables them to utilize more than one printed circuit board while simultaneously keeping them organized and condensed. By stacking the printed circuit boards on top of one another, you can save space inside of your computer or wherever else you are placing your printed circuit boards
Transformers are electrical devices that allow an AC input signal (like audio) to produce a related AC output signal without the input and output being physically connected. This phenomenon is called inductive coupling. Inductive coupling occurs by having two or more coils of insulated wire wound around a magnetic metal core. These wire coils are called windings. When an AC input passes through the input winding (the primary), a related AC out signal appears on the output winding (the secondary). This wireless magnetic field communication is preferred over expensive and inefficient downtimes of physical connectors that wear down quickly due to mating and de-mating. In this article, we will focus on transformers designed for audio.
With the debut of GPS for the consumer and business market, the technology has seen tremendous growth in its use and applications. From smartphones to vehicles, GPS services are often just a click away and can provide life saving information. Within marine equipment, GPS can now help increase safety and navigation while traversing the open waters. As the years go by, technology for marine navigation is constantly improving as well. In this blog, we will give a short overview of the various types of GPS and navigational systems that can be used for vessels.
In any electric circuit breaker, resistors play a key role in managing the flow of electricity. Sometimes however, an electrical engineer only wants to limit certain amounts of current, rather than a blanket level. In these cases, the designers or engineers will install a varistor, a voltage-dependent resistor. A portmanteau of “variable resistor,” a varistor’s resistance decreases as the voltage flowing through it increases. In the case of an excessive voltage increase, their resistance drops dramatically, making them very useful serving as transient voltage suppression, which can be caused by natural phenomena like lightning strikes and electrostatic discharges.
Maintenance, repair, and overhaul (MRO) describes the maintenance activities conducted regarding aircraft and aviation. Often, MRO are professional services provided by a variety of businesses and experts, working with different segments of aviation including business and commercial aircraft, helicopters, military, and more. For aircraft in general, there are various set FAA guidelines for required inspection, repair, and overhaul to ensure that aircraft remain airworthy and safe to operate. MRO is an important service to ensure aircraft remain airworthy, and these providers play a very integral role in supply chain management.
National Stock Numbers (NSNs) are assigned by the U.S. Defense Logistics Agency, which is a sub-branch of the U.S. Department of Defense. All items that are stocked, sourced, and procured within the U.S federal supply system is assigned an NSN by the DLA. A manufacturer can not request an NSN. Instead, there must be an official need for the component from either the U.S. military itself, a government contractor, or a NATO country. Also known as NATO number, NSNs are officially recognized by all the NATO countries. Although a U.S. based program, components manufactured outside the U.S. are eligible for NSNs.
Derived from the term “thermally sensitive resistor,” thermistors are accurate and cost-effective sensors for measuring temperatures. Thermistors are available as negative temperature coefficient (NTC), and positive temperature coefficient (PTC), with NTC thermistors being the more commonly-used. NTC thermistors have their resistance decrease as their temperature increases, while PTC thermistors’ resistance increases as their temperature increases.
What goes up must inevitably come back down. An aircraft’s landing gear ensures that the “coming back down” part ends safely and allows the aircraft to maneuver safely on the ground. Landing gear on aircraft comes in several different types and configurations, which this blog will explore.
The increasing complexity of aircraft engine systems has facilitated more requirements of proper lubrication. Aircraft engines require lubrication to prevent friction from reducing the engines’ efficiency; oil is the lifeblood of the engine. If the oil flow to the bearings stops, the lubricating films break down and cause degradation, wear and tear, and burning between moving parts. Fortunately, the engine fuel pump and oil system are very reliable. Like the circulatory system of the human body, they quietly perform their functions.
Within each flight cycle, an aircraft fuel system must deliver clean fuel to the engine at a proper flow rate to sustain flight— regardless of the operating conditions. A fuel system is composed of boost pumps, tanks, strainers, selector valves, pressure gauges, engine-driven pumps, and more.
Aircraft are under a constant state of stress when logging flight hours. Boeing aircraft, for example, have the ability to fly upwards of 14 hours non-stop and their lifetime can extend anywhere from 20 - 27 years in operation. In this time, an aircraft will experience about 35,000 pressurization cycles and will undergo the associated, and often expected, degradation and parts fatigue. So, how do modern aircraft maintain their reliability and safety over time?
When preparing for a flight, there are many things to worry about and consider like packing luggage, arriving at the airport on time, fitting the carry-ons in the overhead compartment, and so on. The one thing no one really thinks about and often does automatically, that’s boarding. And no matter if it’s the massive Airbus A380 or the luxurious Embraer Lineage 1000E, when we board a plane, we board on the left side. But most of us can’t even begin to explain why.
Earlier in the year, The Boeing Company finished up the flight tests for the newest model of the KC-46 Pegasus wide-body, a plane used to re-fuel other squad member’s during flight. Now they are waiting on word from the FAA to see if their new tankers can fly legally. More certifications are needed on this aircraft than normal because it is classified as a tanker, meaning it may take longer for the tanker to become airworthy.
Boeing Service restores its overseas crusader with an even larger aircraft The beginning of transatlantic flights began in 1919 and progressed over the years with bigger and more efficient aircrafts. One of the more modern accomplishments to date is the implementation of Boeings 747 jumbo aircraft to their transatlantic excursion from Austin, Texas to Heathrow, London. This daily nonstop flight was added to British Airways in March of 2014 which departs from Austin’s- Bergstrom International Airport.
Allegiant Travel Company is looking for twelve A320s. The company is trying to snatch up some used models to keep the cost of their conversion to a fleet containing a single type of aircraft, as low as possible. At the end of 2017, Allegiant Travel Company will have a fleet containing eighty-nine planes. Thirty-seven of which are McDonnell-Douglas MD-80’s. Once 2018 rolls around the McDonnel-Douglas aircrafts will be dropped from the fleet and will be replaced with Airbus planes, and by 2020 Allegiant Travel Company will be manning a fleet of 110 aircrafts.
World renown leasing aircraft company Company has finalized their decsion on inputting the latest GEnx engine into a Boeing 787. The Genx Engine is one of the newest, most innovative engines that promotes eco friendliness along with being very fuel efficient. The Boeing 787 will be built for GE Aviation use as they promote “eco imagination.” Ecomagination is GE Aviation’s standards of being more efficient and more ecofriendly with all their projects and products.
The General Electric CF6-80 engine was introduced in 1982 as a 52,500 – 63,500 lb. thrust engine meant to power mid and large size aircraft like the Boeing 767 and Airbus A330. The engine has aged well despite newer and more fuel-efficient models because of cheap fuel costs and passenger demand for long distance high capacity flights. Ultimately the engines will be phased out, but units are not uncommonly going through their second overhaul at MRO’s for GE CF6-70 engines. That’s an estimated 80,000 hours in flight or 9 years. Globally, the market for GE CF6-80 engines is only expected to shrink by 8% in 2021, meaning MRO shops will be busy for years to come.
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